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托福阅读考试 细节题其实不难

文章来源:出国之窗编辑:johann时间:2011-11-07浏览次数:

托福考试中考生最爱轻视的就是托福阅读,原因是绝大部分考生感觉阅读是强项,对于强项不用过多的重视,然而这种认知不一定准确。通过很多例子我们发现到不少抱有这样想法这样的考生,自认新托福阅读不错的,实际考出来的分数只有22分左右,甚至会更低。那么我们解决这种窘境呢?

ETS对阅读高水平(High level)的评定标准是22—30分。而事实上,阅读如果达不到25分以上,总分想要过百会比较困难,因为这相当于把挣分的压力转移到了大部分人比较弱的听力、口语、写作上面。由此可见,阅读取得高分对于获得百分以上的托福成绩是一种保证!

托福阅读中的细节题其实不难,但前提是定位的点要对,比如下面这个例题:

Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?

A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.

B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.

C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.

D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.

这是一个典型的细节题,在该题题干中,有的考生会选择Puget Sound作为关键词回原文定位,因为它是专有名词,在文中会比较显眼。但是如果一旦选择了这个地名,势必会定位在该段的第一句话,托福细节题往往是定位在哪句就在哪句找答案,这样的话考生是选不出正确答案的,因为定位不精确。其实正确的关键词应该是white-tailed deer,这个用连字符连接的词在文章中也是比较醒目的,按该词定位应是该段最后一句话。所以根据它的意思应该选D项。其中A项与原句意思不符,B和C都与定位句信息无关。我们再来看另外一个否定事实细节题的例子:

Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their structure depends on the particular history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.

According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?

A. They occur at the end of a succession.

B. They last longer than any other type of community.

C. The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change

D. They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.

这个题大家都会选择用climax communities去定位,但在定位过程中会出现很多问题。首先考生要学会跳跃式定位,即根据文章中特殊的标点符号以及最醒目的词来搜索我们真正需要的关键词。文中的particular是加了阴影的,succession是在引号里面的,都非常醒目,通过看这两个词我们会发现它们附近没有我们需要的东西;再比较突出的就是数字及破折号,在500的上方有a climax community,但它是单数,与题干关键词不完全匹配,细节题讲究的是精确定位,所以我们应该选择500斜下方的Climax communities,即该段的最后一句话。

否定事实细节题的出题思路有两种:一是无中生有,即根据定位点的内容,四个选项只有一个没有提到,这种思路多适用于选项比较简短的题目;二是张冠李戴,即根据定位点的内容表述,只有一个选项与之矛盾,这种思路多适应于选项比较长的题目。就这个例题而言,根据定位的最后一句话,从表述上来说跟它相关的只有C和D两个选项,D项的意思与原句相符,而C项与原句矛盾,所以正确答案是C。综上所述,做新托福阅读的细节题,最重要的一点就是要尽量地去精确定位。、

以上是托福阅读中怎样攻破题目,希望大家可以从中学到一些经验或者吸取一些教训,小编不建议大家把别人的方法照搬全抄,还是要以自己的策略为大前提,别人的经验经过仔细揣摩后可以用来完善自己的备考策略。

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